The aim of the Research Centre for Transcultural Studies in Health is to enable the development of health and social care professionals and services to deliver culturally competent and compassionate care that ultimately ensures high-quality care for all.

Formed in 1995, this multi-disciplinary centre brings together health and social care professionals from around the world to research, develop tools, share and exchange knowledge, in order to promote and continually enhance the understanding and delivery of culturally competent and compassionate care.

The Centre organises much of its work on a model which its founder developed in the mid-1990s. The model, formally known as the ‘Papadopoulos, Tilki and Taylor (PTT) model for Transcultural Health and Cultural Competence’, consists of four key constructs: cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, cultural sensitivity, and cultural competence. In 2006, Papadopoulos revised the PTT model and added its conceptual and theoretical underpinnings. These are:


  • Individual
  • Culture
  • Structure
  • Health and Illness
  • Caring
  • Nursing
  • Cultural competence


  • Human Rights
  • Socio-cultural Determinants of health
  • Health Inequalities
  • Transcultural Communication
  • Migration
  • Transcultural Ethics

For more information about the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings please refer to the book:

Papadopoulos I. (ed) (2006): Transcultural Health and Social Care. Development of culturally competent practitioners. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. Edinburgh.

The diagram below provides the visual representation of the model. A content map is provided as a guide for each of the key constructs of the model.

To hear more about the model please listen to the podcast/video prepared and narrated by Professor Papadopoulos: